Effects of Selected Pesticidal Plants on Termites Affecting Maize Production in Arusha, Tanzania
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Investigations under laboratory and field conditions were carried out with purpose of understanding the effects of pesticides of Cupressus lusitanica, Tephrosia vogelii, Eucalpytus dalrympleana, Lantana camara and Azadirachta indica in the control of termites which affect maize production in Arusha, Tanzania. Termites were collected before and during maize season of 2018 and identified at the Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) laboratory. A total of 5279 out of 5307 termite species identified belong to genus Macrotermes, 23 species to genus Odontotermes and 5 species were unknown. The results entailed that the area is rich in species of genus Macrotermes. Moreover, concentrations i.e. 5 g, 10 g and 20 g of each botanical were tested for Macrotermes spp. mortality and repellency ability in the laboratory using a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. The results showed that 98.33% Macrotermes spp. mortality was caused by T. vogelii followed by 93.33% recorded from E. dalrympleana after 24 hours. Besides, C. lusitanica repelled Macrotermes spp. by 97% followed by 95% recorded from T. vogelii and E. dalrympleana each. For field trials, 20 g of each botanical was applied using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates. The results obtained from field indicated that T. vogelii was more effective to protect maize with an average of 6 maize stands and 3.4 kg of dry total weight of maize grains next to positive control per plot. Also, average of 4 maize stands and 3 kg dry total weight of maize grains were recorded from treatments of E. dalrympleana and C. lusitanica each. Such results highlight the potential of developing bio-termiticides from T. vogelii, C. lusitanica and E. dalrympleana to control Macrotermes spp.