Physicochemical and microbiological characterization and of hospital wastewater in Tanzania
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Given the complex composition of hospital wastewater and the high risk of initiating disease outbreaks, comprehensive monitoring and treatment of hospital wastewater are required to prevent social and environmental consequences. This study investigated the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of wastewater from the Benjamin Mkapa Hospital in Dodoma Tanzania. The wastewater from this hospital is treated in a horizontal flow Constructed Wetland (CW) planted with Typha latifolia before being discharged into the environments. Wastewater samples were collected at the CW inlet and outlet from 02nd May 2022 to 25th July 2022. The results shows that the effluent discharged had pH 7.48 ± 0.63, electrical conductivity 2441 ± 623 µS/cm, Total dissolved solids 1305.5 ± 396 mg/L, Total suspended solids 49.17 ± 53.11 mg/L, Turbidity 9.1 ± 14.83 NTU, COD 170.4 ± 40.6 mg/L, BOD5 74.8 ± 33.5 mg/L, NO3-N 45.4 ± 39.97 mg/L and PO4-P 4.52 ± 2.30 mg/L. The CW removed TSS by 82% and turbidity 94%. COD, BOD and NO3-N were removed by 48%, 47% and 58% respectively. E. coli concentration in effluent samples ranged from 1.1 × 101 CFU/mL to 1.1 × 102 CFU/mL with an average of 1.77logCFU/mL. Average BOD5/COD ratio was 0.5 and 0.4 for influent and effluent respectively. The effluent contained higher levels of EC, TDS, and PO4-P than the influent. According to the findings of this study, most of the parameters of wastewater effluent discharged wasn't within the effluent discharge standards.