Photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes in textile wastewater by Polyaniline composite catalyst-a review
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Azo dyes in industrial textile and dye effluent (5–30%) have become irresistibly recalcitrant and toxic to both treatments and the environment respectively. Global concerns about the persistent nature of these dyes and the limitation of the conventional treatment currently in place have led to this critical analysis and evaluation of the photocatalytic approach using nano-technology. The review of literature has indicated that although this approach is effective, however, the limitation of frequent electron-hole recombination during the process coupled with challenges of agglomeration of nano particle powder, photo-corrosion and photosensitivity of the various nano-materials are still challenges associated with the development of polymeric based nano composite catalyst of polyaniline (PANI). The unique features of incredible charge transport properties, surface morphology and enhanced functional properties gave PANI the choice of use among other conductive polymers for composite fabrication with materials such. Photoactive properties, conductivity mechanical, thermal and chemical stability equally offers the polymer the propensity of bandgap tunability when in composites with other materials. Consequently, effective recovery and reuse of the composite catalyst for more than four runs with efficiency > 90% becomes obtainable. These appreciable advantages offer fabricated nano composite polymeric-based catalysts an effective outlook of use in the remediation of toxic azo dyes industrially as compared to the bio-catalyst and pure nano adsorbent materials. Therefore, the review discusses the treatment process for azo dyes, fabrication and performance evaluation of improved composite catalyst of PANI as an alternative to the conventional catalyst in wastewater and recommends for further investigation in PANI to enhance treatability of azo dyes.