Mathematical Modelling and Analysis of Corruption Dynamics with Control Measures in Tanzania
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Corruption is a worldwide problem that affects many countries where by individuals loses their rights, lower community confidence in public authorities, absence of peace and security, misallocation of resources and termination of employment. Despite various measures which have been taken by various countries to control corruption, the problem still exists. In this paper, we formulate and analyze a mathematical model for the dynamics of corruption in the presence of control measures. Analysis of the model shows that both Corruption Free Equilibrium (CFE) and Corruption Endemic Equilibrium (CEE) exist. The next generation matrix method was used to compute the effective reproduction number ( ) which is used to study the corruption dynamics. The results indicate that CFE is both locally and globally asymptotically stable when < 1 whereas CEE is globally asymptotically stable when > 1. The normalized forward sensitivity method was used to describe the most sensitive parameters for the spread of corruption. The most positive sensitive parameters are κ and ν while the most negative sensitive parameters are α and β . Therefore, the parameters of mass education α and religious teaching β are the best parameters for control of corruption. The model was simulated using Runge-Kutta fourth order method in MATLAB and the results indicate that the combination of mass education and religious teaching is effective to corruption control within short time compared to when each control strategy is used separately. Therefore, this study recommends that more efforts in providing both mass education and religious teaching should be applied at the same time to control corruption.