Integrated constructed wetlands treating industrial wastewater from seed production
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The performance of an integrated wastewater treatment system composed of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW), floating constructed wetland (FCW), and anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was studied for pollutant removal from seed production wastewater. Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella Papyrus) plants were used in the HSSFCW, and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass) in the FCW. The ABR was fed with 25 m3/d wastewater from its equalization tank. The average raw wastewater organic loading rate was 0.208 kg-COD/d. Grab wastewater samples were collected twice weekly for three months from each unit's inlet and outlet. The system's performance in removing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, and ammonium was studied. The average removal efficiencies obtained were 95.5% BOD5, 94.6% COD, 86.2% TSS, 76.6% turbidity, 82.4% nitrate, 76% phosphate, and 32.9% ammonium. The results show that integrating ABR, HSSFCW, and FCW improves pollutant removal from seed production wastewater, and the treated water can be used for agricultural purposes.