Plant biomasses for defluoridation appropriateness : unlocking their potentials
Mwakabona, Hezron T.
Njau, Karoli N.
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Fluoride and fluorosis are endemic to many countries including Tanzania. Performances of different materials for use in water defluoridation systems have been reported. Some of these materials are; alum, oxides and hydroxide of metals, activated carbon, bone char and plant biomasses. This paper reviews and discusses the performances of selected defluoridation materials such as alum in Nalgonda technique, the oxides and hydroxides of metals (inorganic adsorbents) in ion exchange/adsorption, activated carbon, bone char and plant biomasses in ion exchange/adsorption. More discussion is on the strengths and limitations of these materials in removing fluoride from water. Furthermore, it describes a new approach that will likely enhance the fluoride removal capacity when plant biomasses are used, which involves special arrangement of different plant biomasses in a column. This promises to be of low cost and high performance and thus suitable for both urban and rural communities in developing countries.