Classroom ICT integration in Tanzania: Opportunities and challenges from the perspectives of TPACK and SAMR models
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With the education systems demand of contemporary technologies, teacher trainees should be imparted with competencies and skills to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) into their future teaching and learning practices. This study assessed classroom ICTs integration opportunities and the challenges in relation to Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) and SAMR (Substitute, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition) models. The case study involved tutors and teacher trainees (N=206) from teacher training colleges. Results indicated that, majority of respondents have low pedagogical ICT competencies. However, tutors exhibited good knowledge level in all TPACK and SAMR constructs that we assessed, teacher trainees’ revealed poor skills and inefficient support on the use of basic ICTs (hardware, software, and associated peripherals). The impacts of TPACK and SAMR models characteristics related to the technology use planning and redesign of learning tasks was evident. Most of the challenges identified were associated to the lack of infrastructures, readiness to change and lack of competencies on pedagogical ICTs applications. Among others, we recommend the government to work on a harmonized ICT in education integration framework; that consider the existing opportunities and challenges facing Tanzania teacher training systems. Further work should focus on carrying out an experimental research design to unlock the existing ICT use realities.