In situ facile green synthesis of Ag–ZnO nanocomposites using Tetradenia riperia leaf extract and its antimicrobial efficacy on water disinfection
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In this work, Ag–ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by a green synthesis route using aqueous leaf extract of Tetradenia riperia and investigated for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. To optimize the synthesis of the Ag–ZnO, the effects of precursor concentrations, pH, and temperatures were studied. The Ag–ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, ATR-FTIR, FESEM, and TEM. Results show that the concentration of 8% Ag, the temperature of 80 °C, and a pH of 7–8 were optimal for the synthesis of Ag–ZnO nanocomposites. The XRD analysis showed the decrease in particle size of Ag–ZnO from 23.6 to 14.8 nm with an increase in Ag concentrations, which was further supported by FESEM analysis. TEM image of 8% Ag provides more information on the coexistence of Ag on ZnO where an average particle size of 14.8 nm was determined. The ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of phenolic compounds, which work as reducing and stabilizing agents. The antimicrobial activity results show that Ag–ZnO nanocomposite demonstrated a higher antimicrobial potency on E. coli than on S. aureus. Therefore, Tetradenia riperia leaf extract is a viable route for the synthesis of Ag–ZnO nanocomposites to be used for various applications, including water disinfection.