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Column design for groundwater hardness removal using cashew nut shells activated carbon with potential application in low-income communities

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dc.contributor.author Mwakabole, Emmanuel C.
dc.contributor.author Rwiza, Mwemezi J.
dc.contributor.author Njau, Karoli N.
dc.date.accessioned 2020-01-22T12:57:22Z
dc.date.available 2020-01-22T12:57:22Z
dc.date.issued 2020-01
dc.identifier.uri doi: 10.5004/dwt.2020.24857
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.nm-aist.ac.tz/handle/123456789/532
dc.description Research Articles published by Desalination and water treatment en_US
dc.description.abstract tigated. Water hardness has a significant impact on groundwater, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, leading to wasted investments in borehole drilling and worsening accessibility to potable water. In many developing countries, groundwater is the main source of drinking water. In this study, low cost and readily available cashew nut shells activated carbons (CNSAC) were used to remove hardness from groundwater in a column setting. The recommended design parameters for the packed-bed column were as follows: area (A) of 265.0 cm2 and diameter (d) of 18.4 cm, at a flow rate (Q) of 75.0 cm3 min–1. For the field hard water at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min–1, the recommended empty bed contact time was 70.7 min whereas the breakthrough time was about 430.0 min. Also for field hard water, the results showed that competing ions in the groundwater lowered the materials adsorption capacity. Results from this study indicated that CNSAC may be used to adequately remove groundwater hardness. Using these results, a filter was designed. The designed water hardness filter, which will be scaled up for point-of-use applications, may provide the much-needed solution to many people in most developing countries where similar field conditions prevail. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Activated carbon en_US
dc.subject Cashew nut shells en_US
dc.subject Column design en_US
dc.subject Groundwater en_US
dc.subject Hardness removal en_US
dc.title Column design for groundwater hardness removal using cashew nut shells activated carbon with potential application in low-income communities en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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