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Making Rainwater Harvesting a Key Solution for Water Management: The Universality of the Kilimanjaro Concept

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dc.contributor.author Qi, Qinwen
dc.contributor.author Marwa, Janeth
dc.contributor.author Mwamila, Tulinave Burton
dc.contributor.author Gwenzi, Willis
dc.contributor.author Noubactep, Chicgoua
dc.date.accessioned 2020-02-13T10:33:22Z
dc.date.available 2020-02-13T10:33:22Z
dc.date.issued 2019-10-11
dc.identifier.uri doi:10.3390/su11205606
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.nm-aist.ac.tz/handle/123456789/557
dc.description This research article published by MDPI, 2019 en_US
dc.description.abstract Rainwater is conventionally perceived as an alternative drinking water source, mostly needed to meet water demand under particular circumstances, including under semi-arid conditions and on small islands. More recently, rainwater has been identified as a potential source of clean drinking water in cases where groundwater sources contain high concentrations of toxic geogenic contaminants. Specifically, this approach motivated the introduction of the Kilimanjaro Concept (KC) to supply fluoride-free water to the population of the East African Rift Valley (EARV). Clean harvested rainwater can either be used directly as a source of drinking water or blended with polluted natural water to meet drinking water guidelines. Current e orts towards the implementation of the KC in the EARV are demonstrating that harvesting rainwater is a potential universal solution to cover ever-increasing water demands while limiting adverse environmental impacts such as groundwater depletion and flooding. Indeed, all surface and subsurface water resources are replenished by precipitation (dew, hail, rain, and snow), with rainfall being the main source and major component of the hydrological cycle. Thus, rainwater harvesting systems entailing carefully harvesting, storing, and transporting rainwater are suitable solutions for water supply as long as rain falls on earth. Besides its direct use, rainwater can be infiltrating into the subsurface when and where it falls, thereby increasing aquifer recharge while minimizing soil erosion and limiting floods. The present paper presents an extension of the original KC by incorporating Chinese experience to demonstrate the universal applicability of the KC for water management, including the provision of clean water for decentralized communities. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher MDPI en_US
dc.subject Drinking water en_US
dc.subject Rainwater harvesting en_US
dc.subject Recharge pits en_US
dc.subject Recharge ponds en_US
dc.subject Stormwater management en_US
dc.title Making Rainwater Harvesting a Key Solution for Water Management: The Universality of the Kilimanjaro Concept en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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