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Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extracts of Rauvolfia caffra var. caffra (Apocynaceae) From Tanzania

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dc.contributor.author Njau, Efrem-Fred A.
dc.contributor.author Alcorn, Jane
dc.contributor.author Ndakidemi, Patrick
dc.contributor.author Chirino-Trejo, Manuel
dc.contributor.author Buza, Joram
dc.date.accessioned 2019-10-07T10:15:46Z
dc.date.available 2019-10-07T10:15:46Z
dc.date.issued 2014-09-24
dc.identifier.issn 1916-968X
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v6n4p156
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.nm-aist.ac.tz/handle/123456789/455
dc.description Research Article published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Vol. 6, No. 4; 2014 en_US
dc.description.abstract As part of an effort to search for extracts and compounds with new antimicrobial efficacy to fight against bacterial resistance, the antibacterial activity of Rauvolfia caffra var. caffra (Sond.), a plant of family Apocynaceae used in Traditional Medicine in Tanzania, was investigated. Ethanol, methanol and water extracts from leaf, stem and root barks were tested against three species of bacteria namely Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (Gram -ve), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (Gram +ve) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 51299) (Gram +ve) using Agar-well diffusion assay method and minimum inhibitory concentration on Mueller-Hinton Agar plates. The extracting solvents were removed by vacuo evaporator to obtain gummy-like extracts. This was then dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (10% DMSO). The DMSO without plant extracts was used as a negative control whereas Gentamicin® as the standard antibiotic was used as a positive control. The Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) measured in mm and Relative Inhibitory Zone Diameter (RIZD) was calculated. Results showed that R. caffra exhibited antimicrobial inhibitory activity at a range of 1.25 to 5.0 mg/ml with activity most prominent with methanol extract (ZOI of 28.33± 0.33 mm and RIZD of 95% for S. aureus; and ZOI of 26.66 ± 0.33 mm for E.coli and 19.0 ± 0.57 mm for E. faecalis at P< 0.05). To characterize further, the alkaloid from the root bark was extracted according to the standard procedure. The antioxidant activity of the alkaloids and ethanolic extracts was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing capacity assays. The results indicated that alkaloid fraction of the root and 80% ethanolic extracts of stem bark exhibited high antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis indicated that R. caffra is rich in alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthocyanoides, flavonoids, saponins, tannis and reducing sugars. This study provides supportive evidence that methanol and ethanol extracts of R. caffra can be used as herbal medicine in control of E.coli, S. aureus and E. faecalis. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Canadian Center of Science and Education en_US
dc.subject Rauvolfia caffra en_US
dc.subject ethnopharmacology en_US
dc.subject phytochemicals en_US
dc.title Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extracts of Rauvolfia caffra var. caffra (Apocynaceae) From Tanzania en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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