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Water hardness removal by coconut shell activated carbon

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dc.contributor.author Rolence, Cecilia
dc.contributor.author Machunda, Revocatus L.
dc.contributor.author Njau, Karoli N.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-07-04T11:42:40Z
dc.date.available 2019-07-04T11:42:40Z
dc.date.issued 2014-08-30
dc.identifier.issn 2330-7420
dc.identifier.uri doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.20140205.11
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.nm-aist.ac.tz/handle/123456789/354
dc.description Research Article published by Science Publishing Group en_US
dc.description.abstract The present study reports the water softening by adsorption of hardness ions onto Coconut Shell Activated Carbons (CSAC). Characterization of CSAC was identified by FT-IR and SEM techniques. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the effect of various adsorbent factors such as adsorbent dose, initial pH, contact time, and temperature, on the adsorption process using synthetic and field collected water samples. Removal efficiency at nearly neutral pH of 6.3 for both synthetic and field collected water samples were 60% and 55% respectively. Temperature study (303 K-333 K) shows that the softening process in synthetic and field hard water is endothermic as removal efficiency was increasing from 40% and 29% at 303 K to 47% and 38% at 333 K respectively. Removal efficiency increases with the increase in contact time and adsorbent dose until 15 hours and 0.24g/cm 3 respectively, for both field and synthetic hard water, which was considered to be maximum. Equilibrium isotherms have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models fit to explain the adsorption behavior of hardness ions onto CSAC. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Science Publishing Group en_US
dc.subject Activated Carbon en_US
dc.subject Water Hardness en_US
dc.subject Coconut Shell en_US
dc.title Water hardness removal by coconut shell activated carbon en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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